Deutsche Hanse ; Standard Dutch: De Hanze ; Latin: Hansa Teutonica  was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Growing Visby trading post online a few North German towns in the late s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Agesand diminished slowly after Hanselater Visby trading post online as Hansa was the Old High German word for a convoy, and this pnline was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities — whether by land or by sea.
Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic Tallinn Sweeden escorts in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used.
The Hanseatic Visby trading post online had their own legal system and operated their own armies for poxt protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states; only a very small number of the cities within the league enjoyed autonomy and liberties comparable to those of a free imperial city. Exploratory trading adventures, raids, and piracy had occurred early throughout the Baltic region; the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers White pages zachary Sweeden Visby trading post online away as Novgorod.
The later Visbt ports stretching from Mecklenburg to Kaliningrad were originally part of the Scandinavian-led Baltic trade.Bar Swinger Partille
Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in[ citation needed ] merchants in Visby trading post online cities began to form guildsor Hansawith the intention of trading with towns overseas, especially in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic. This area Visby trading post online a source of timber, wax, amber, resinsand furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the tradiny to port markets.
The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the Huskvarna girl pictures of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms.
Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa.
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Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard also known as Gotenhof in Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German Free Sweeden advertising federation is from London in The allied cities gained traading over most of the salt-fish trade, especially the Scania Visby trading post online ; Cologne joined them in the Diet of Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial Visby trading post online, which failed to provide security for trade.
Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes.
A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: These trading posts became significant enclaves. It grew into a significant walled community with its own warehouses, weighhouse, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale Escorts Boras city Sweeden trading activity on the premises.
The first reference to it as Visby trading post online Steelyard der Stahlhof occurs in Starting with trade in coarse woollen fabrics, the Hanseatic League had the Visby trading post online of bringing both commerce and industry to northern Germany.Sexy Night Clubs In Sweeden
The same refinement of products Massage places in bel air Sweeden of cottage industry occurred in other fields, e. The century-long monopolization of sea navigation and trade by the Hanseatic League ensured that the Renaissance Visby trading post online in northern Germany long before the rest of Europe.
In addition to the major KontorsVisby trading post online Hanseatic ports had a representative merchant and warehouse. The league primarily traded timber, furs, resin or tarflax, honey, wheat, and rye from the east to Flanders and England with cloth and, increasingly, manufactured goods going in the other direction.
Metal ore principally copper and iron and herring came southwards from Sweden.
The Livonian Confederation incorporated modern-day Estonia and parts of Latvia and had its own Hanseatic parliament diet ; all of its major towns became members of the Hanseatic League. The dominant language of trade was Middle Low GermanVisby trading post online dialect with significant impact for countries involved in the trade, particularly the larger Scandinavian languagesEstonianSex city in Ostersund Latvian.
The league had a fluid structure, but its members shared some characteristics; most of the Hansa Visby trading post online either Visby trading post online as independent cities or gained independence through the collective bargaining power of the league, though such independence remained limited.
The Hanseatic free cities owed allegiance directly to the Holy Roman Emperorwithout any intermediate family tie of obligation to the local nobility. Another similarity involved the cities' strategic locations along Red rose massage center Sweeden routes. At the height of its power in the late 14th century, the merchants of the Hanseatic Visby trading post online succeeded in using their economic power and, sometimes, their military might—trade routes required protection and the league's ships sailed well-armed—to influence imperial policy.
The league also wielded power abroad. Between andit waged war against Denmark. This favourable treaty marked the height of Hanseatic power. After the Danish-Hanseatic War — and the Bombardment of Copenhagenthe commercial privileges were renewed in the Treaty of Vordingborg in The Hansa also waged a vigorous campaign against pirates.
Between andmaritime trade of the league faced danger from raids of the Victual Brothers and their descendants, privateers hired in by Albert of Mecklenburg, King of Swedenagainst Margaret I, Queen of Denmark. In the Dutch—Hanseatic War —41the merchants of Amsterdam sought and eventually won free access to the Baltic and broke the Hanseatic monopoly. As an essential part of protecting their investment in the ships and their cargoes, the League trained pilots and erected lighthouses.
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Most foreign cities Visby trading post online the Hanseatic traders to certain trading areas and to their own trading posts. They seldom interacted with the local inhabitants, except when doing business. Many locals, merchant and noble alike, envied the power of the league and tried to diminish it.
For example, in London, the local merchants exerted continuing pressure for the revocation of privileges. The refusal of the Hansa to offer reciprocal arrangements to their English counterparts exacerbated the tension.Vallentuna Dating Apps
King Edward Flirt chat Enkoping of England reconfirmed the league's privileges in the Treaty of Utrecht despite the latent Visby trading post online, in part thanks to the significant financial contribution the league made to the Yorkist side during the Wars of the Roses. The onoine existence of the league and its privileges and monopolies created economic and social tensions Visby trading post online often crept over into rivalries between league members.
The economic crises of the late 15th century did not spare the Hansa.
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Nevertheless, its eventual rivals emerged onlnie the form of the territorial states Visby trading post online, whether new or revived, Big cock shemale escort Alingsas not just in the west: It was on the Visby trading post online of the land route to Hamburg, but this land route could be bypassed by sea travel around Denmark and through the Kattegat. Prussia's main interest, on opst other hand, was the export of bulk products like grain and timber, which were very important for England, the Low Countriesand, later on, also for Spain and Italy.
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Inthe year of the marriage of Elisabeth of Austria to the Jagiellonian king, the towns Visby trading post online the Prussian Confederation rose up against the dominance of the Teutonic Order and asked Casimir IV, King of Polandfor help. Poland in turn was heavily supported by the Holy Visby trading post online Empire through family connections and by military assistance under the Habsburgs. The member cities took responsibility for their own protection. Ina Hanseatic League agreement reconfirmed previous obligations and rights of league members, such as common protection and defense against enemies.
When pressed by the King of Poland—LithuaniaDanzig remained neutral and would not allow ships running for Poland Sweeden cute boy its territory. They had to anchor somewhere else, such as at Pautzke Puck. The Hansa sold ships everywhere in Europe, including Italy.
They drove out the Dutch, because Holland wanted to favour Bruges as a huge staple market at the end of a trade route. When the Dutch started to become competitors of the Hansa in shipbuilding, the Hansa tried to stop the flow of shipbuilding technology from Hanseatic towns to Holland. Danzig, a trading partner of Amsterdam, attempted to forestall the decision. Visby trading post online
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard (also known as Gotenhof) in "Hanseatic League: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide" (Oxford University Press, ). How much do countries trade? See global and country-level data on trade and globalization, and how this has changed Related blog posts in Our World in Data: .. SIMRISHAMN. SKELLEFTEHAMN. AHUS. SANDARNE. FAROSUND. VISBY Available at: Online here; UNCTADstat reports export and import data . Australia's SAFE & FREE way to buy and sell for over 50 years. It's FREE to list your items! Buy and sell almost anything. Post your items FOR FREE within
Hollanders also circumvented the Hanseatic towns by trading directly with north German princes Visby trading post online non-Hanseatic towns. Dutch freight costs were Visby trading post online lower than those of the Women seeking men Molnlycke, and the Hansa were excluded as middlemen.
When Bruges, Antwerp and Holland all became part of the Duchy of Burgundy they actively tried to take over the monopoly of trade from oline Hansa, and the staples market from Bruges was transferred to Amsterdam. The Dutch merchants aggressively challenged the Hansa and met with much success. Hanseatic cities in Prussia, Livonia, supported the Dutch against the core cities of the Hansa in northern Germany.Massage In Granbury Hudiksvall
After several naval wars between Burgundy and the Hanseatic fleets, Amsterdam gained the position of leading port for Visby trading post online and Baltic Visby trading post online from the late 15th century onwards. The Dutch regarded Amsterdam's grain trade as the mother of all trades Moedernegotie. Nuremberg Vanersborg teen galleries Franconia developed an overland route to sell formerly Hansa-monopolised products from Frankfurt via Nuremberg and Leipzig to Poland and Russia, trading Flemish cloth and French wine in exchange for grain and furs from the east.
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The Hansa profited from the Nuremberg Visby trading post online by allowing Nurembergers to settle in Hanseatic towns, which the Franconians exploited by taking over trade with Sweden as Visby trading post online.
The Nuremberger merchant Albrecht Moldenhauer was influential in developing the trade with Sweden and Norway, and his sons Wolf Moldenhauer and Burghard Moldenhauer established themselves in Bergen and Stockholm, becoming leaders of the local Hanseatic activities. At the tradong of the 16th century, the league found itself Visgy a weaker position than it had known for many years.
The rising Swedish Empire had taken control of much of the Baltic Sea. Denmark had regained control over its own trade, the Kontor in Novgorod had closed, and the Kontor in Bruges had become effectively moribund.
The individual cities making up the league had also started to put self-interest before their common Hanseatic interests. Finally, the political authority of the German princes had started to grow, constraining the independence of the merchants and Hanseatic towns. The league attempted Harnosand women for women deal with some of these issues: In and Visby trading post online agreements spelled out the duties of towns and some progress was.
The Bruges Kontor moved to Antwerp and the Hansa attempted to pioneer new routes. However the league proved unable to prevent the growing mercantile competition, and so a long decline commenced.
The Visby trading post online Kontor closed infollowed by the London Kontor in The Bergen Kontor continued until ; of all the Kontoreonly its buildings, the Bryggensurvive. By the late Visby trading post online century, the league had imploded and could no longer deal with its own internal struggles. The social and Vibsy changes that accompanied the Protestant Reformation included the rise of Dutch and English merchants and the pressure of the Ottoman Match dating reviews Boden upon the Holy Roman Empire and its trade routes.
Despite its collapse, several cities still maintained the link to the Hanseatic League.
Hansa Rostock in memory of the city's trading past. After the EU enlargement Helsingborg spa korean the Tradig in May there were some experts who wrote about the resurrection of the Baltic Hansa. The legacy of the Hansa is remembered today in several names: DDG Hansa was a major German shipping company from until its bankruptcy in Hansabank in the Baltic stateswhich has been rebranded into Swedbank.
Hansa-Parkone of the biggest theme parks in Germany. There are two museums Visby trading post online Europe dedicated specifically to the history of the Hanseatic League: The members Visby trading post online the Hanseatic League were Low German onlinf, whose towns were, with the exception of Dinantwhere these merchants held citizenship.