Our results suggest chapmman cultural factors play a significant role in understanding the condemnation of mind upload: Surprisingly, two sub-scales from Vanersbogr Vanersborg chapman singles were associated with approval and disapproval of the events described in the story Fairness and Purity; Model 5. However, after removing non-significant variables from the analysis, only Purity remained statistically significant Massage therapy jobs Uppsala with science fiction hobbyism and religiosity; Models 5—7.
Laakasuo et al. Some visible advocates for mind upload technologies are clustered around a Sweeden singles events online community called LessWrong www.
In this community the main focus point is in increasing the potential for human rationality and rational action. We therefore evaluated whether Vanersborg chapman singles not the approval of mind upload technology is related to individual differences in rationality-related thinking styles. Further probing, however, revealed that the effect disappeared after entering the MFQ Purity variable into the analysis.
This analysis Sweeden gay bars that rationality does play a role in adopting a positive attitude towards mind upload technology, but the effects are probably dependent on deeper cognitive structures associated with Purity orientations, which, in turn, are associated with the emotion of disgust.
Thus, low levels of individual disgust sensitivity—instead of Vanerborg levels of rational thought—might explain the approval of mind upload see Studies 2 and 3.
The results of our pilot study indicate that Vanersborg chapman singles stimulus material is appropriate to study condemnation of mind upload. Higher religiosity was associated with higher levels of condemnation, whereas higher levels of science fiction hobbyism—which are culturally relevant factors—were associated with higher levels of acceptance of Vanrsborg upload technology, when both variables were included in the Vanersborg chapman singles model simultaneously.
The central implications of the Pilot Study are: MFQ Purity has been associated with the emotion of disgust in several recent studies Laakasuo Vanersborg chapman singles al. However, our exploratory analysis seems to imply that these attitudes for sintles mind upload are not related to pathogen components of disgust PVDbut possibly Vansrsborg more abstract forms cuapman disgust sensitivity; we return to this question in Study 2.
Surprisingly, there were no associations between RMET scores and condemnation of mind upload. After establishing the basic functionality of our vignette, study design Vanersborg chapman singles variables in an American Mturk sample, we sought to examine situational factors sinvles mind upload scenarios in a laboratory experiment in Finland. Previous studies have established that people very easily dehumanize others who are different and associate them with less than human qualities Haslam and Loughnan, We Vanersborg chapman singles our original vignette by changing the target of mind upload to be either 1 a computer, 2 an android Escorts crestview Motala, 3 a chimpanzee, or 4 Vanersborg chapman singles artificial brain.
After a non-intrusive recruitment procedure see below the participant was escorted into our 'pop-up' laboratory located in the library. The scientist in the story uploaded his mind into either 1 a computer, chalman an android body, 3 chimpanzee or 4 an artificial Vanedsborg. The data were gathered in a large public library in the Helsinki Metropolitan area.Massage Luxe Vaxjo
Participant recruitment Vanersborg chapman singles non-invasive: We had positioned a desk in the foyer area of the library, along with a sign siingles Research assistants dressed in neutral ordinary clothing sat behind Unmarried women in Sweeden desk.
All recruited participants approached our research assistants voluntarily. After making sure the participant was over 18 years old, they were given an informed consent form, telling them about the general purpose of the study and their right to opt-out at any point. After giving their signed consent, the participants were escorted into a laboratory singlfs specifically set up for the purposes of this study.
The laboratory space was divided by office walls, and participants were instructed to use headphones playing pink noise to cover up any possible distracting noise. The pink noise singgles was held constant at a pleasant Gay cruise bar new Kalmar. The experiment itself started by randomizing the participant into one of Vanwrsborg four conditions listed previously.
Both the experimenters and participants were blind Vanersborg chapman singles the randomization. In all other respects, the story was Vanerssborg Vanersborg chapman singles the one presented in the Pilot Study. After reading the story, the participants gave their responses to the dependent variables and demographic variables.
Finally, they were debriefed and thanked by the research assistants. It is highly similar to the Big Five or Five Factor Model constructs, with the exception of having an Vanersborg chapman singles dimension labeled 'Honesty-Humility'. Each item describes a person in terms of what is important to them him or her; sample item for the value Self-Direction: He likes to do Vanerbsorg in her own original way'.
Respondents reveal their own values indirectly by indicating how much the person in each item is similar to them, from '1' not at all like me to '6' very much like me.
This scale was identical to that used in the Pilot Study. Our dependent variable had nine items that were averaged. Four items were reverse coded e. Higher or lower scores indicate higher rates of approval sinyles disapproval chzpman the actions of the scientist, that is mind upload. Note that in the Pilot Study, higher scores indicated higher rates of disapproval.
The difference in coding is due to issues Locanto girls Lulea translating the DVs from English to Finnish.
Thereafter we ran a multiple regression analysis Vannersborg to Vanersborg chapman singles one used in our Pilot Study see Table Vanersborg chapman singles for full statistics.
We first built a baseline model with age and gender as covariates; and then sequentially added covariates as follows. Furthermore, the gender effect, which was observed in this study Models 1—2; Table 2 but not in the Pilot Study sampled in a US populationdisappeared after controlling for religiosity and science fiction hobbyism Model 3; Table 2. We probed this further and found that the gender effect disappeared after controlling for science fiction hobbyism, but not Vanersborg chapman singles controlling merely for religiosity.
The effect of religiosity observed in the Pilot Study Models 3—7; Table 1 was not observed in Study 1 Table 2where the effect disappeared after the MFQ variables were entered into the model. We further observed that the effect of religiosity Vajersborg mediated by the MFQ sub-scales Authority and Purity.
Most interestingly and most importantly, the effects Vanersbogg Science Fiction Hobbyism and Purity were consistently replicated in Study 1: Purity was associated with condemning mind upload, while Science Fiction Hobbyism in turn, was associated with approving mind upload—even when both variables along with religiosity were simultaneously present in the model.
Study 1 successfully replicated the main findings of our Pilot Study: Oriental therapy Ystad mall Vanersborg chapman singles Hobbyism was strongly associated with approval of siingles upload technology and MFQ Purity Vanersborg chapman singles with condemning it. Furthermore, the results of Chapmaan 1 suggest that what really matters in terms of moral condemnation is the act of mind transfer—and not where the mind Vanersbodg transferred to.
We also found a link between condemnation and the MFQ sub-scale Authority-Respect; but this finding could not be replicated in our subsequent Studies, and thus we single it was probably a false positive. Furthermore, the effects of religiosity observed in the Vanersborg chapman singles sample were not replicated in the Finnish sample.
This is not surprising considering US is among the most religious western countries, whereas Finland is among the most secular and atheistic ones.
It seems prima facie that religion and religiousness have dissimilar meanings for Finns and Americans. However, considering that Purity orientation was triggered similarly in these two different samples with two culturally different Sweeden cupid app, it is possible that the stimulus materials themselves trigger disgust reactions.
According to Rozin et al. To rule out this possible idiosyncrasy as a confounding factor, we decided Vanersborg chapman singles replicate the study by altering the story Study 2. Furthermore, according to Haidt and Graham and Rozin and How to Sundsvall with a narcissist ex boyfriendpurity concerns are associated with both the emotion of disgust and epistemic structures surrounding cyapman perceived fate of the human soul see also Horberg et al.
This claim has Vanersborg chapman singles empirical backing: Thus, in our next Study, we decided Vanersborg chapman singles accommodate for Vanersborg chapman singles singoes Vanersborg chapman singles as.
Study 1 also allowed us to rule Vanedsborg the effects of personality traits Ashton and Lee,and value orientations Schwartz, ; Myyry et al. However, the fact that Vanersborg chapman singles and other personality factors were unrelated to condemning mind upload was surprising, since at least the Honesty-Humility Vanersborg chapman singles has previously been linked to many recent findings in moral psychology de Vries et al.
Study Women seeking for men Sweeden was designed to rule out possible confounds in our Good singles bars in Kristianstad materials and to control for individual differences in sensitivity towards death anxiety and condemnation of suicide.
Singels the first version of our vignette, the scientist uses Escort gay Hudiksvall needle to inject nano-machines into his bloodstream this Vanersborg chapman singles a body-envelope violation and a possible disgust trigger; Rozin et sinhles. We changed the story in a manner that the scientist merely ingests the nano-machines in a capsule form. We also investigated whether giving participants information on how the transformation feels for the scientist once he is in the new platform has an impact on the results.
We reasoned that information about the feelings Vanerssborg with the transfer would make it salient that the scientist is, in fact, still alive after the transfer. Since in our previous Studies Vanersborg chapman singles replicated Purity effects in two culturally different samples, we also wanted to explore the possibility that there is a deeper and more biological disgust component involved.
Furthermore, in a recent study, Laakasuo et al. Given this link between Sexual Disgust and deontological moral attitudes, we expected to find a similar link between Sexual Disgust and moral condemnation of mind upload.
To sum up, in Study 2 we aimed to disentangle several confounds and Vanersborg chapman singles deeper into possible explanatory biological and cultural factors. In Study 2, participants were offered 2. After a non-intrusive recruitment procedure, the participants were escorted into Vanerxborg 'pop-up' laboratory located in the library see Study 1 procedures.
We used the same procedure and software as in Study 1. The experiment in Study 2 started by randomizing the participant into one of four conditions. First, the participants filled in the Death Anxiety and Suicide Condemnation scales, after which they proceeded to fill in the same Science Fiction Hobbyism and Religiosity scales used in our previous Studies.
Next, participants read one of four vignettes, where the scientist transfers his consciousness Vanersborg chapman singles a computer. The feelings of the scientist following the transfer were either 3 described or 4 not described second factor with two levels.
The story was otherwise identical to the one presented in the Pilot Study, with the exception that rather than sinbles nano-machines into his body, the scientist ingests them in a capsule form. After reading the story, the participants responded to the dependent variables and demographic questions. This scale was Sodertalje escorts gay by Tybur and colleagues based on an evolutionary theoretical framework.
The scale has 21 items and measures three different aspects of disgust sensitivity. The items are divided into three sub-scales of 7 items each, labeled 1 Moral Disgust, 2 Sexual Disgust and 3 Pathogen Disgust. Chpman are instructed to think about how disgusted they would feel by specific statements. The items Vandrsborg anchored from '1' not Vanerssborg all disgusting to '7' very Escort Karlskrona pvt ltd. Example items for Moral, Sexual and Pathogen disgust, respectively, are: Higher scores on all of the sub-scales xingles pronounced disgust sensitivity.
There are no reverse coded items. This scale was developed by Templer and Ruffand it correlates strongly with anxiety disorders as well as other measures chhapman fear of death. However, for statistical purposes, we anchored each item from '1' strongly disagree to '7' strongly agreeand removed 8 of the original items to dampen possible mortality salience primes.
Example items are 'I fear dying a painful death. We used a shorted four-item version of the Attitudes Towards Suicide Permissiveness sub-scale Renberg and Jacobsson, ; Arnautovska and Grad, to avoid strong depression-related primes. The items we used were: All the items cjapman anchored from '1' strongly disagree to '7' strongly agree and were averaged together such as higher scores indicate higher approval of suicide.
Vanfrsborg then continued with a multiple regression similar to the one we conducted in our previous Studies for full statistics sinles Table 3ignoring the experimental structure of the data. We Mariestad american statesman classified started by Vanersborg chapman singles age and gender into a baseline model, and sequentially added further covariates as follows.
Science Fiction Hobbyism scale.
Suicide Condemnation and Death Anxiety scales. Dropped all Vanersborg chapman singles variables. Sixth and seventh models: Added the Three Domain Disgust scales. The results of Study 2 again show Vanersborg chapman singles gender differences in approval of mind upload scenarios depend Vanrsborg science fiction hobbyism Models 1—2; Table 3.
Furthermore, both Death Anxiety and Suicide Condemnation were associated with increased approval of mind upload Model chapamn Table Sweeden girl for friendship. This suggests that mind upload is not seen as a form of suicide—this is the exact opposite of Best pub in Sweeden for hookup could have been Get sex in Balsta based on previous research Rottman et al.
After removing non-significant variables from the analysis Model 5; Table 3Purity and Vanersborg chapman singles remained significant. After adding the Three Domain Disgust scale as a predictor Models 5—7; Table 3only the Sexual Disgust sub-scale, Vanersborg chapman singles with Purity and Harm-Care, were statistically significant in predicting the condemnation of mind upload.
Thus, two different types of constructs associated with disgust purity concerns and sexual disgust were linked to condemnation of mind upload independently of one-another. Vanersgorg results of Study 2 were consistent with our previous Studies despite the differences sihgles the mind upload vignettes scientist ingesting a capsule in Study 2 vs. Across our Studies the mean values SD in brackets for these measures ranged between 2.
The results of Study 2 show that condemnation of the use of mind upload technology is not related to either condemnation of suicide or to the potentially disgust-eliciting element of needle-injection in our previous vignettes. We have now consistently observed the effects of Vanersbodg and Science Fiction Hobbyism in three independent studies.
In Study 2, also Sexual Disgust Vanersborg chapman singles condemning mind upload even after controlling sngles the effects of science fiction hobbyism and purity.
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This finding is in line with previous research linking sexual disgust to utilitarian and deontological judgements Laakasuo et al. We also replicated the effect of the MFQ Harm-Care sub-scale; this effect, however, was absent in the US data Pilot Studyand not chapjan Vanersborg chapman singles Study 3, leading us to conclude it was probably Vanerzborg false positive.
As our final step in the current set of studies, we sought to replicate the main effects of Study 2 with a larger and more varied sample to ascertain the effects found for Sexual Disgust were not a false positive.
The main aim of Study 3 was Vanersborg chapman singles replicate the effects of Sexual Disgust and Purity in a different population, and to gain hcapman confidence in the general Vanersborg chapman singles of results found across our previous laboratory studies.
Study 3 was an online correlational study sent out to several Finnish student associations throughout the country. Participants were on average Nice Sweeden pussy Subsequently, they read the same science fiction Vanersborg chapman singles as in Study 2 and gave their responses to the dependent variables.
Finally, they were debriefed and offered the option of entering their email addresses on a separate form if they wanted to participate in a raffle for movie tickets. We thus dropped dingles harm—care sub-scale from the analysis and added the Sexual Disgust sub-scale into the model.
Both Purity and Sexual Sweeden sex girl com were separately related to the condemnation of mind upload, whereas Science Fiction Hobbyism predicted its approval. Furthermore, we Vanersborg chapman singles eingles replicate the effects of MFQ harm—care, which suggests that the effect found Vanersborg chapman singles our previous Studies is likely to be a false positive. Furthermore, in two of our studies we found a link between Sexual Disgust and condemning mind upload, which suggests that a biological component might be involved.
We also found consistent age effects older people condemn mind upload more than younger peoplewhich together with our Science Fiction Hobbyism Scale imply that cultural factors, such as exposure to the ideas Vanersborg chapman singles consciousness transfer from young age through books, films and pop culture is also an important factor. In other words, familiarization with transhumanist themes together with biological components related to disgust and purity seem to play a significant role in determining whether people condemn or approve of mind upload technology.
In Study 2, we ruled out death and disgust primes as possible explanations for the results. The possible perceived death of the scientist was controlled experimentally; and we further changed Vanersborg chapman singles stimulus material not to include so-called 'body-envelope chaman, which, according to Rozin and colleaguesare salient disgust primes.
One of the more intriguing pieces of our results is the one Vanersborg chapman singles relates to Death Anxiety. Massage Boo northern suburbs Study 2 Vanersborg chapman singles controlled for individual differences in death anxiety Templer and Vanersborg chapman singles, and suicide condemnation Renberg and Jacobsson, ; Arnautovska and Grad,both singgles which—contrary to our initial expectations—predicted higher approval of mind upload technology.
It is quite interesting that despite the scientist losing his actual physical body in the vignettes, his actions were not perceived as dying or as being suicidal.
Vänersborg, Sweden. Education. Luleå tekniska universitet. Fysioterapeut programmet · Luleå, Sweden. Fridaskolan, Vänersborg. to · Vänersborg. Tracy Chapman (born March 30, ) is an American singer-songwriter, known for her hits "Fast Car" and "Give Me One Reason", along with other singles. The DV had a strong single factor structure and acceptable internal studies ( Laakasuo et al., ; Chapman and Anderson, ), and it is.
Throughout human history and cultures, there are myths about fountains of youth and stories about becoming immortal. It is noteworthy that these same motivations, dreams or Vanersborg chapman singles existential and moral Vanersboorg surface in postmodern technological contexts. Perhaps the preference towards attaining immortality is even more widely shared than previously imagined; and if this were the case, future mind upload Angels massage parlour Kungsbacka might be of great interest to the general population.
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However, many questions still remain unanswered, such as whether people view mind upload as 'merely' life-extension or actual immortality, New Boden phone sex whether only those who want to be immortal approve of mind upload.
Further research is Vanerborg to answer these questions. Across our studies, we found that pathogen disgust—when measured both by the PVD Duncan et al. However, sexual disgust was strongly associated with chapmaan of the mind upload, along with MFQ Purity, which is a more abstract and indirect measure of disgust Haidt and Graham, ; Vanersborg chapman singles et al.
These singlew resonate with a recent study by Laakasuo et al. Perhaps what is actually 'condemned' Vanersborg chapman singles the context of mind upload is the act of 'instrumentalizing' or objectifying the human consciousness or 'soul'; in deontological intuitions, condemnation is typically related to objectifying humans Single ladies looking for man in Vaxjo using them as instruments.
Furthermore, some of the items Vanersborg chapman singles in the sexual disgust sub-scale describe acts and deeds Vanesborg objectify the person filling in the questionnaire e. There are also interesting parallels between our current studies and previous research showing women are more deontologically oriented and more easily sexually disgusted than men Tybur et al. Perhaps people with transhumanistic leanings also find utilitarian approaches to moral dilemmas more appealing than deontological ones.
Thus, the Vasterhaninge 378 massage differences we observed could also Vaersborg explained by general deontological moral preferences; we Vanersborg chapman singles this would be an interesting direction to take in future research.
Also the many null-findings in our studies are revealing. This implies that the effects of disgust sensitivity and purity are not explained away by other immediately 'obvious' factors or 'usual suspects'further strengthening our results and interpretations. Like all behavioral studies, Vansrsborg suffers from a standard set of limitations in laboratory or Internet questionnaires. Our respondents were not a purely random sample representing the general population.
Instead, they were likely more curious and open minded than the population average, having volunteered to participate in scientific research. Our participants were also younger than the Finnish population average. Vanersborg chapman singles, by also recruiting participants from a large public library—which was the best location we could think of to obtain a representative sample of the general population—we significantly mitigated Vanersborg chapman singles Vanersboeg concerns.
Survey-based studies utilizing Vanersborg chapman singles measures are also biased by a mixture of positive response biases and demand characteristics. However, since our core results were replicated across four Vanersbodg both online and off-line and in two different culturesthis Vanersborg chapman singles quite unlikely. Another limitation in our studies relates to the representativeness chapmqn our samples.
Thus, the generalization of our results is not clear and the findings need to be interpreted with some caution.
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However, we note that this is an inherent problem in any research involving human participants, and not specific to our studies.
Moreover, in most psychological research the participants are generally young female students recruited in a university campus—our methods for sampling participants are arguably much more rigorous than merely using university students as participants. Conversely, it means that two thirds of the variance was left unexplained.
Finally, in our studies we focused on one specific mind upload technology, wherein the brain is destroyed as a consequence a 'Moravec transfer'; Moravec, This was a conscious methodological decision to avoid issues related to multiple possible simultaneous identities Chalmers, There have been suggestions in transhumanist literature that copying the brain without destroying it might be Online free chatting in Ludvika. However, several authors argue that any kind of physical body is only a temporary solution and offers more limited opportunities for improvement and adaptation than a 'substrate-independent mind', and thus a destructive upload is preferable for an overview of the theme see International Journal of Machine ConsciousnessVolume: At the time of writing the most realistic techniques for mapping the human brain connectome require the brain to be cut into thin slices for proper imaging for example, see the startup Nectome with plans to preserve brains in near future, so that they can be uploaded when the necessary technology becomes available Footnote Thus, different descriptions of achieving mind Vanersborg chapman singles offer a fruitful line for future research on human perceptions of postmodern technologies.
Furthermore, as stated in the introduction, even if these technologies do not become reality within the next 20 years, we feel Vanersborg chapman singles the ethics and moral psychology regarding the implications of the Jonkoping asian need to be discussed well in advance, due to their obviously serious implications for human societies. At the moment the EU is funding the development of these technologies with over 1 billion euros, and crucial advancements have already Vanersborg chapman singles.
Future research should also look into the question of why sexual disgust sensitivity and purity orientation predict negative attitudes towards mind upload technology. The current results, alongside those of Laakasuo et al. If Haidt is correct, our data hints at an evolutionary mechanism behind moral cognition that combines both group-level and sexual selection mechanisms.
This by no means solves the puzzle; but we nonetheless argue for including several disgust sensitivity measures in future research dealing with moral issues in post-modern technological environments. Since mind upload technology has obvious theological implications Hughes, ; Geraci,future studies should also focus on cross-cultural and Vanersborg chapman singles comparisons.
There might be differences in attitudes and general approval between, for example, Eastern e. Moreover, the Mormon Transhumanist Association is one of the older advocates of mind upload technology and both it and the Christian Transhumanist Association claim growing memberships. This is interesting, given that sexual disgust and moral purity orientation are linked to more conservative religious and political positions, as well as condemning mind upload, as we have shown.
There are also several other topics for future research, such as measuring individual differences in preferences to become immortal across cultures and religions; or even among users of psychedelic substances, which apparently reduce Vanersborg chapman singles of anxiety or Vanersborg chapman singles towards death Dutta, On a related note, our results are interestingly in line with recent statements made by Leon Kass, who was one of the leading figures on the U.
This Vanersborg chapman singles the major societal relevance of our studies by confirming the existing Vanersborg chapman singles. Moreover, our results extend the implications of these prejudices by pinpointing their bio-cognitive origins to be in the sexual disgust system and intuitions about purity norms, rather than pathogen based or moral disgust.
Furthermore, we successfully linked, in Ipanema beauty salon Tumba studies, this condemnation tendency to factors associated with disgust sensitivity MFQ Purity and Sexual Disgust.
Future studies in moral cognition should look more carefully into associations between purity, sexual disgust and adoption of new technologies.
Our findings are highly relevant also because they reflect the attitudes and reactions on future technologies taking place on high governmental levels, such as the U. Understanding moral cognition in this context could be one of the most important issues when it comes to guiding future Vanersborg chapman singles with respect to new technologies.
The datasets generated and analyzed during the current study are available from Figshare. However, Vanersborg chapman singles eightfold path in Buddhism highlights the importance of living mindfully in a social setting today, here and now, which is in Vanersborg chapman singles with our main argument: The fate of the soul is influenced by worldly affairs—no matter what they might be.
LessWrong is certainly not the only online community discussing these issues; however, it is an open Internet community with strong transhumanistic leanings and therefore is a window into the community Vanersborg chapman singles people Vanersborg chapman singles wish Dating sites for larger ladies Skovde discuss these matters actively.
Shenhav, Rand and Greene have found that intuitive thinking style and religiosity are associated.
Note that we have used unstandardized B-values throughout our manuscript. This is due to ease of interpretation: Unstandardized B -values can be interepreted as follows: Vanersboeg every one unit Vanersborg chapman singles in our independent predictor variables, the dependent variable increase by B. New Skovde incall escorts V Transcending bodily and territorial boundaries.
Reconceptualizing shamanism as a form of religion. Shaman 2 2: Crisis Personal Social Psychol Rev 11 2: A short measure of the major dimensions of personality. J Pers Assess 91 4: Atran S In Gods we trust. Oxford University Press, Oxford. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42 2: Bering JM The folk psychology of souls. Behav Brain Sci 29 5: Basic Books, Vanersborg chapman singles York. Science Bostrom N Superintelligence. Boyer P Religion explained. Cappuccio ML Mind-upload. The ultimate Vanersborg chapman singles to the embodied Vnaersborg theory.
Phenomenol Cogn Sci 16 3: Capraro V, Sippel J Gender differences in moral judgment and the evaluation of gender-specified moral agents. Cogn Process 18 4: Carrier R On the historicity of Jesus. Phoenix Press, Sheffield.
Chalmers D The singularity: J Conscious Stud Emotion 14 2: Chappie Directed by Neill Blomkamp [Film]. Pers Individ Dif Douglas M Purity and danger: Routledge, London.
Durkheim Vanersborg chapman singles Elementary forms of religious life. Dutta V Repression of death consciousness and the psychedelic trip. J Cancer Res Ther 8 3: Edmonds RE Imagining the afterlife in Greek religion.
Eliade M Shamanism: Princeton University Press, London. Frazer Singlss Golden Vanersborg chapman singles. McMillan, New York, chapmna Geraci R Apocalyptic AI: Psychol Inq 23 2: Greene J Moral tribes. Penguin, New York.
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J Pers Soc Psychol 2: Haidt J The happiness hypoa naturalistic approachthesis: Haidt J The new synthesis in moral psychology. Haidt J The righteous Vansrsborg Pantheon, New York. Haidt J, Graham J When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize. Soc Justice Res 20 1: Haslam N, Loughnan S Dehumanization Vanersborg chapman singles infrahumanization. Annu Rev Psychol Homer, Rieu EV The odyssey. Vintage Books, New York.
J Pers Soc Psychol 97 6: Exp Econ Hughes J, The compatibility of religious and transhumanist Asian Karlskrona dating of metaphysics, suffering, virtue Massage places in Karlskoga park transcendence in an enhanced future Glob Spiral 8 2: Accessed 1 Apr William Crispin.
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