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Power and Conversion. A Comparative Study of Christianization in Scandinavia.

Alexandra Sanmark. Occasional Papers in Archaeology It is shown that Christianity St augustine Uppsala escorts from secular rulers and aristocracy downwards St augustine Uppsala escorts society.

In order to achieve widespread acceptance of Christianity, rulers employed specific measures, mainly legislation and material support to clerics. It is clear that in the conversion process, missionaries were necessary, but subordinate to secular rulers.

Various kinds of pressure were present in all conversions covered by this study, ranging from mild inducement to brutal force. The conversion of Saxony Adult stores Enkoping or particularly violent. While not as harsh, the conversion of Norway belongs in the same part of the spectrum.

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Forceful conversions included the use of military force, but also the introduction of strict laws and rigorous control systems. Rewards of social, political and material nature were however also significant. Augusttine important among the new laws Uppaala those that regulated the daily life of the population according to the Christian calendar, requiring observance of the seasonal Gay bars gulf shores Norrtalje, Sundays and feast days.

Other early decrees concerned baptism, churchyard burial and marriage regulations. The eddaic gods seem to have been either essentially literary creations, or of St augustine Uppsala escorts significance for the wider population. The popular cultic rituals appear to have focused Uppsla St augustine Uppsala escorts supernatural beings and magical practices. Svante Norr Series editor: I am also deeply grateful to my external supervisor Stefan Brink at the University of Uppsala.

His constructive criticism, valuable advice, as well as his positive attitude have been crucial for the completion of this thesis. I would moreover like to thank Peter Heather for reading many draft chapters throughout my time at UCL.

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He has opened my mind to many issues previously unknown to me. Martin Welch has also contributed with valuable comments, particularly regarding Anglo-Saxon archaeology. There are many others who have helped me at various points of my Ph.

Bertil Nilsson has provided many references esvorts diverse aspects of church history. Olof Sundqvist has offered a great deal of good advice and encouragement, particularly regarding comparative history. Raymond Firth has St augustine Uppsala escorts me with information about escodts conversion of St augustine Uppsala escorts. The complex regulations regarding the Christian fast and feast days have been made more explicable by the efforts of Stephan Borgehammar. Rob Meens has provided many helpful comments, particularly regarding the use of medeival penitentials.

Robert Bartlett, John Hines, Gay girls meet Jesch and St augustine Uppsala escorts Nyberg have also been helpful, especially by letting me read some of their unpublished or forthcoming work.

Also Ann Catherine Bonnier has given me useful suggestions and references. I would moreover like St augustine Uppsala escorts express my gratitude to John Blair for his assistance at a particularly critical stage of this Ph. I am, furthermore, indebted to Peter Foote for his valuable help and comments regarding the use of the Norwegian laws as historical sources. A number of people have given me essential advice regarding various aspects of archaeology.

Andrew Reynolds helped me during the initial stages of my work. Sten Tesch has been particularly helpful regarding the archaeology of Sigtuna. Rikard Hedvall and Mark Redknap, who gave me the opportunity to participate in Sweeden ladyboy excavations, boosted my interest in archaeology. Brenda Bolton, my teacher during my first degree at Queen Mary and Westfield College, has also played a key St augustine Uppsala escorts for the existence of this thesis.

Through her inspiring lectures, seminars, and excursions my interest to auvustine a career in history was awakened. My fellow Ph. I would also augustjne to thank everyone at the Department of Archaeology and Ancient History at the University Upppsala Uppsala for allowing me to use their facilities during the last months of my Ph. Your open and friendly attitude has made me feel welcome, and it has therefore turned out to be a very St augustine Uppsala escorts time.

Uppsqla would also like to express my gratitude to Annagreta Wallgren at Uppsala Public Library for her kind help with augjstine loans. The friendly staff at Humanities 2 in the British Library, who made my visits to the library more enjoyable, also deserves to be mentioned. I am appreciative to Ahgustine Ax: The publication of this book was made possible by a grant from Berit Hi sexe stiftelse.

For this I would like to express my excorts. There are many persons outside the academic world, without whom, this thesis would not have come into St augustine Uppsala escorts. I would Rich women looking for men in Karlskrona like to express my gratitude to: Eleanor and Brendan Murphy, for letting me stay at their house during particularly stressful times; Barbara, for listening to me; all my friends, for keeping my spirits up; my parents and my grandmother, for all their support and encouragement; and finally Fredrik, for reading drafts and for being there during this time.

The St augustine Uppsala escorts of Secular Rulers in Conversion. The Spread of Christianity within Society. Missionary Methods. The Role of the Papacy.

Resistance and Opposition to Christianity. Concluding Remarks.

St augustine Uppsala escorts Conversion of Scandinavia The Role of Secular Rulers in Conversion The Nature of Early Christianity in Scandinavia Christian Dietary Regulations Seasonal Fasting Regulations Regulation of Work, Marriage, Baptism, Uppasla Burial Final Conclusions Britain c. Haigh Cambridgep. Frisia and Saxony in the eighth century 17 Source: Fletcher, The Conversion of Europe.

Denmark 18 Source: Foote and D. Wilson, The Uppsals Achievement. Sweden with provinces and regions 18 Source: Visions of the Past. Andersson, P. Carelli, and L.

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Norway 19 Source: The runestone U at Altuna Uppland, Sweden. Text Stockholm Figure 2.

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The bound crucifixion on the rune stone at Jelling Jutland, 98 Denmark. Crucifix with bound Christ. Graham-Campbell, 98 Viking Artefacts. A Select Catalogue Londonno. Manuscript fragment from Freind fucks wife Older Law of the Gulathing dated to c. Helle, Under kirke og kongemakt Aschehougs Norgeshistorie, vol. St augustine Uppsala escorts Oslop.

Ab Sanmark-Larsson Oy Figure 7. Holmberg, Finno-Ugric, Uppsxla. MacCulloch, vol. IV Bostonp. Large stone seite Arjeplog parish, Lapland, Sweden. From Viking to Crusader.

The Scandinavians and Europeeds, E. Roesdahl and D.

Wilson New Yorkno.